Transmission & Distribution

  • Discover an expanded Transmission and Distribution Learning Plan by visiting our Industrial Skills Series  for additional titles relevant to the industry.

    Course Titles:
    • T&D SYSTEMS AND THEORY

      • AC Fundamentals Review
      • Basic Electricity Review
      • Distribution
      • High-Voltage AC Power 1
      • High-Voltage AC Power 2
      • Introduction to Smart Grid
      • Introduction to Transmission and Distribution Systems
      • Reading Electrical System Diagrams 1
      • Reading Electrical System Diagrams 2
      • Substations and Switchyards
      • Transmission
    • T&D MAINTENANCE BASICS

      • Advanced Rigging
      • Basic Electrical Safety
      • Bucket Trucks 1
      • Bucket Trucks 2
      • Care and Testing of Tools & Equipment
      • Compressors and Pneumatic Tools
      • Hydraulic Derricks
      • Hydraulic Hand Tools 1
      • Hydraulic Hand Tools 2
      • Material Handling Bucket Trucks
      • Mobile Hydraulic Systems
      • Multiple Street Lighting Systems
      • Power Quality and Reliability
      • Rigging 1
      • Rigging 2
      • Safe Bucket Truck Operations
      • Safety in Substations and Switchyards
      • Safety in Transmission and Distribution Maintenance
      • Series and Street Lighting
      • System Protection and Monitoring
      • Using Line Test Equipment
    • OVERHEAD LINE MAINTENANCE: DISTRIBUTION

      • Climbing Wooden Poles
      • Distribution Line Installation and Removal
      • Distribution Line Repair—Gloves
      • Distribution Line Repair—Hot Sticks
      • Distribution Line Replacement
      • Distribution Line Safety
      • Overhead Distribution Systems
      • Overhead Troubleshooting 1
      • Overhead Troubleshooting 2 - Emergency Conditions
      • Pole Top Equipment & Replacement 1
      • Pole Top Equipment & Replacement 2
      • Pole Top Transformer Replacement
      • Safety in Overhead Line Maintenance
      • Service Installation
      • Setting and Replacing Poles
      • Pole Framing and Guying
      • Troubleshooting Overhead Lines
      • Transformer Connections 1
      • Transformer Connections 2
      • Transformer Troubleshooting
      • 34.5 KV Rubber Glove Work
      • Tree Trimming 1
      • Tree Trimming 2
      • Working on Distribution Poles
    • OVERHEAD LINE MAINTENANCE: TRANSMISSION

      • Climbing Steel Poles and Towers
      • Rigging for High-Voltage Line Work
      • Temporary Structures
      • Transmission Line Installation
      • Transmission Line Repair - Bare Hand
      • Transmission Line Repair - Hot Sticks
      • Transmission Line Safety
      • Transmission Structures
      • Working on De-energized Transmission Lines
    • UNDERGROUND LINE MAINTENANCE

      • Cable Fault Locating (Radar) 1
      • Cable Fault Locating (Radar) 2
      • Cable Fault Location 1
      • Cable Fault Location 2
      • Cable Splicing 1
      • Cable Splicing 2
      • Cable Terminations
      • Pad-Mounted Transformers & Switchgear
      • Safety in Underground Line Maintenance
      • Underground Cable Installation
      • Underground Conduit
      • Underground Residential Distribution Systems
      • URD Transformers
      • URD Troubleshooting

This series addresses how Transmission and Distribution systems accomplish their function, how individual pieces of equipment work, and how these pieces of equipment are installed and maintained. The program will also refresh the skills of more experienced personnel, especially those courses that focus on safety in routine operations and maintenance.

Instructional features

This self-paced and interactive web-delivered series includes up-to-date, award-winning content, real world situations with “on location” video, crisp audio, stunning graphics, and engaging discovery activities which stimulate and involve the trainee. This series is an internet browser-based application with centralized learning management capabilities and global end-user accessibility. Each course contains challenge questions within the web-based training module and an examination at the end of each module. An online glossary is available for ease of reference. In addition, to reinforce the audio medium of delivery, a closed captioning feature allows you to read the lesson word for word, in its entirety. The Learning Management System (LMS) keeps track of all trainee test scores, log times, and site-information access and provides custom reporting options.

Structure

The training curriculum for the Transmission and Distribution Series includes 79 titles, divided into 5 categories:

  • T&D Systems and Theory
  • T&D Maintenance Basics
  • Overhead Line Maintenance: Distribution
  • Overhead Line Maintenance: Transmission
  • Underground Line Maintenance

When used in its entirety, this series provides a comprehensive core curriculum. However, specific training needs can be addressed by creating custom training packages from the various instructional courses.

Objective

The primary objective of this series is to provide essential training for personnel involved in the transmission and distribution of electric power. The secondary objective of this series is to refresh the skills of more experienced personnel, especially those courses focusing on safety in routine operations and maintenance. The series can be used as part of an apprenticeship or other type of training program.

Benefits

The benefits of this on-line delivery system include: reduction of learning time, consistency of delivery, better understanding of lineworker safety, increased motivation, greater retention, and ease of remedial or refresher training.

TARGET AUDIENCES

  • Employees assigned to site preparation, construction, installation, and start-up of transmission, distribution, regulation and point of service equipment
  • Service and maintenance personnel for all equipment essential to power delivery

T&D SYSTEMS AND THEORY

AC Fundamentals Review

The purpose of this course is to review significant terms, concepts, and principles associated with alternating current. Emphasis is placed on what alternating current is, how it works, and what factors affect the operation and maintenance of AC equipment.

Basic Electricity Review

The Basic Electricity Review training course is designed to provide maintenance students with a review of fundamental electrical concepts. The major topics covered in this course are: the nature of electricity; the six major sources of electricity; basic electrical quantities; series and parallel circuits; Ohm’s law; electromagnetism; inductance; and capacitance. At the conclusion of this course, the students should have a basic understanding of the fundamental electrical concepts covered in the course. They should be able to use Ohm’s law to calculate unknown quantities in series and parallel circuits, and they should know how inductors and capacitors can be used.

Distribution

The purpose of this course is to teach T&D personnel to recognize the basic elements in a distribution system and to understand, in general, how each element works. The program also introduces basic protective devices and the process of sectionalizing. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should know how to recognize transformers, voltage regulators, and capacitors. They should also have a basic understanding of how these devices work. Trainees should also be able to identify basic protective devices used on distribution systems to protect the system and its components from damage and its customers from outages. And trainees should have a basic understanding of how distribution systems are laid out.

High-Voltage AC Power 1

The purpose of this course is to introduce T&D personnel to some of the factors that influence transmission efficiency and power loss. The program explains how T&D systems are designed to minimize power loss and how resistance, capacitive reactance, and inductive reactance can be manipulated to help maintain minimum levels of power loss. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should know what power loss is and how power loss is affected by impedance. They should understand that impedance comes from resistance, capacitive reactance, and inductive reactance.

High-Voltage AC Power 2

The purpose of this course is to teach trainees basic AC power theory. The course focuses on the relationships between various types of power and on the functions of transformers, voltage regulators, and capacitors in a distribution system. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to define apparent power, true power, reactive power, and power factor and explain the meaning of each term in the context of three-phase AC distribution systems. They should also be able to describe how delta and wye configurations affect voltage and current and how voltage regulators and capacitors are used to affect the power factor in a three-phase distribution system.

Introduction to Smart Grid

This module will describe what the smart grid is and why it was developed. It will also describe advanced sensing and measurement techniques and control strategies that are used within smart grid systems. Finally, the module will provide an overview of advanced technologies developed for smart grid systems.

Introduction to Transmission and Distribution Systems

The purpose of this course is to teach trainees how transmission and distribution systems generally deliver to customers the power produced by power plants. The course describes how the major components of a typical transmission and distribution system function and how electricity flows through these components on its journey from the power plant to customer. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of how transmission and distribution systems operate. They should be able to identify the basic components of a transmission and distribution system and explain their functions. They should also be able to describe the flow path from a power plant, through a typical T&D system, to the customer.

Reading Electrical System Diagrams 1

The purpose of this course is to teach trainees the kinds of information that can be obtained by reading electrical system diagrams and to illustrate how this information can be used to assist linemen who work on electrical systems. Practical examples of how to get information are given throughout the program. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should know what kind of information is typically found on construction diagrams, on schematic diagrams, and in specification manuals. They should know how to use all of these references to determine the information necessary to do a job.

Reading Electrical System Diagrams 2

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic kinds of information that can be obtained from three types of electrical system diagrams: one-line diagrams, plan-profile diagrams, and framing diagrams. The course shows how these diagrams are read and interpreted and how information from all three types of diagrams can be used to complete an assignment. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should know what information is typically found on one-line, plan profile, and framing diagrams. They should also be able to use one-line and plan-profile diagrams to determine the location of a job site and then plan the best route to the site. In addition, trainees should be able to use a framing diagram to determine what materials should be present at a work site and in what quantities.

Substations and Switchyards

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic safety principles and practices applicable to substation and switchyard maintenance work. The course describes electrical, chemical, and personal hazards that may be encountered in substations and switchyards. A general procedure for responding to imminent dangers and accidents is also presented. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to identify hazards in substations and switchyards and explain why safety practices are important. They should be able to recognize hazards and unsafe practices on the job, and they should have a general understanding of how to respond to imminent dangers and accidents.

Transmission

The purpose of this course is to teach trainees the purpose and function of the components that make up the transmission portion of a T&D system. These components include conductors, insulators, and structures. The course also gives a basic overview of the major tasks that must be accomplished when a transmission line is constructed and discusses the principal concerns of a lineman during transmission line inspection. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to list and describe the major components in a transmission line and explain their functions. They should also be able to describe the basic tasks involved in constructing and inspecting a transmission line.

T&D MAINTENANCE BASICS

Advanced Rigging

The Advanced Rigging training course is designed to familiarize the students with the various types of weights and tensions associated with rigging in line work. The procedures and concepts presented assume a familiarity with basic electrical theory and transmission and distribution systems. Students without this prior training may require additional explanation or instruction. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to explain the difference between static force loads and dynamic force loads, and how to determine the weight of each type of load. The students should also be able to explain line tension, bisect tension, and guy tension, and they should be able to determine each type of tension for a given job. In addition, the students should be able to define the term “safety factor” in terms of rigging, and they should be able to use a safety factor to plan safe rigging. Specific objectives for each segment of the course are given in the student text.

Basic Electrical Safety

A good understanding of electrical safety can help prevent accidents on the job. Workers must be aware of electrical hazards and familiar with the protective devices in electrical systems as well as the safety practices that help prevent injuries and equipment damage. In this course, the trainee will learn how to work safely and what to do in case of an emergency such as electrical shock.

Bucket Trucks 1

The purpose of this course is to teach the major parts of a bucket truck, safety features commonly found on bucket trucks, and some of the pre-use inspections that can be made on a bucket truck. It is assumed that trainees have no previous experience in operating bucket trucks. When trainees have completed the course, they should practice operating the controls of a bucket truck under the supervision of experienced personnel. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be familiar with the major parts of bucket trucks. They should also be familiar with the basic types of bucket trucks, the boom controls, some of the common safety features and overrides, and some of the common pre-use inspections that can be performed on a bucket truck.

Bucket Trucks 2

The purpose of this course is to teach some basic techniques that can be used to operate a bucket truck safely and efficiently. Techniques for setting up and operating a bucket truck at three typical job sites are described. It is assumed that trainees are already familiar with the basic parts of a bucket truck and that they understand how to use the bucket controls to operate the booms. After trainees have completed the course, they should practice setting up and operating a bucket truck at a job site under the supervision of experienced personnel. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to set up and operate a bucket truck at a job site.

Care and Testing of Tools and Equipment

The purpose of this course is to teach care, inspection, and testing of tools and equipment commonly used in transmission and distribution maintenance work. Basic information is also provided on two particular types of tests: dielectric tests and acoustic emission tests. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to define the objectives of dielectric and acoustic emission tests and to explain, in general terms, how these tests are performed. The trainees should be able to describe and demonstrate how to inspect protective equipment such as rubber gloves, sleeves, blankets, line hose, hoods, mechanical jumpers, bucket trucks, and hot sticks. They should also understand how to care for this equipment.

Compressors and Pneumatic Tools

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic operating principles and general operating procedures for air compressors and the following pneumatic tools: jackhammers, tamps, pumps, circular air saws, and duct blowing rigs. The course shows how to use the tools efficiently for several construction and maintenance jobs. Emphasis is placed on the important safety precautions associated with using these tools. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of how to operate an air compressor. They should also know how to use pneumatic tools safely and efficiently on a job

Hydraulic Derricks

The purpose of this course is to familiarize the students with three types of hydraulic digging equipment: digger derricks, backhoes, and trenchers. The major working parts and controls and safe operating practices for each are described. Each piece of equipment is shown safely performing a job typical of those for which it is designed. After completing this course, trainees should be able to locate and identify the major working parts and controls of digger derricks, backhoes, and trenchers. They should also be able to summarize the uses for which each machine has been designed and describe each machine’s safe operation in the field.

Hydraulic Hand Tools 1

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles of operation of three commonly used types of hydraulic hand tools: breakers, pole pullers, and tamps. The course also presents some of the basic principles of hydraulics and shows how these principles apply to the operation of a hydraulic power system. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of how hydraulic breakers, pole pullers, and tamps operate. They should be able to identify the basic external and internal parts of the tools and explain their functions. They should also know the safety precautions that are applicable to using hydraulic hand tools on a job.

Hydraulic Hand Tools 2

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles of operation of three types of hydraulic hand tools: chain saws, impact wrenches, and presses. In addition to showing how these tools work, the course explains how to use them to perform some of the tasks commonly assigned to transmission and distribution linemen. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of how hydraulic chain saws, impact wrenches, and presses operate. They should also know how to use and maintain each type of tool safely and efficiently.

Material Handling Bucket Trucks

The purpose of this course is to teach the operation of material handling bucket trucks. The course focuses on the material handling features of the truck that distinguish it from other types of bucket trucks. It covers truck positioning, lift capacity, and some of the conductor lifting attachments that can be used to make a material handling bucket truck even more useful in the field. To gain maximum advantage from this course, trainees should already be familiar with basic bucket trucks. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to identify the material handling features of a material handling bucket truck, including the winch, the jib, and conductor lifting attachments. They should also be able to explain lift capacity and demonstrate how to use a material handling bucket truck to lift equipment or conductors.

Mobile Hydraulic Systems

The purpose of this course is to teach basic operation and maintenance of mobile hydraulic systems used on line trucks. The course presents the basic principles of hydraulic power and explains how these principles are used to produce motion. Inspection and routine maintenance of mobile hydraulic systems are also discussed. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of how mobile hydraulic systems operate. They should be able to identify components of a mobile hydraulic system and explain how they function. They should also be able to inspect a mobile hydraulic system and perform minor maintenance.

Multiple Street Lighting Systems

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles of operation and maintenance of a multiple street lighting system. The course presents the fundamental theory of operation and identifies the equipment typically found in a multiple street lighting system. Approaches to detecting and correcting common problems are also shown. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of how multiple street lighting systems work, what equipment they use, and how they are controlled. The trainees should be able to detect and correct common problems in a multiple street lighting system.

Power Quality and Reliability

This training course is designed to familiarize students with the issues and problems associated with maintaining power quality. T o obtain maximum benefit from this course, the students should have a general understanding of the basic concepts of electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to explain the basic concepts of power quality, identify sources and causes of power quality problems, and describe the effects of power quality problems on residential and commercial customers. They should also be able to identify equipment and methods for preventing and monitoring power quality problems.

Rigging 1

The purpose of this course is to teach the fundamentals of overhead rigging. The topics covered include three basic elements of safe rigging, rope, knots and knot tying, use of a hand line, and use of block and tackle. The course also introduces approaches to performing some basic rigging tasks. At the conclusion of this course, the trainees should have a basic understanding of how to plan a rigging job, how to inspect the equipment used on a job, how to tie basic knots commonly used in rigging, how to hang and use a hand line, and how to hang and use a block and tackle. Trainees should also be able to calculate the mechanical advantage of a block and tackle and identify the basic parts of a rope.

Rigging 2

The purpose of this course is to teach rigging skills required for tasks often performed in line work. The course demonstrates how to rig to lift a conductor and how to rig to take the strain from a conductor at a dead end. Rigging to lift and move a piece of equipment and the use of a gin pole are also demonstrated. Safety is emphasized throughout the course. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of how to rig to lift a conductor, how to rig to take strain at a dead end, how to lift and move a load, and how to use a gin pole. They should understand how to maintain safe working clearances around energized lines and how to avoid overloading rigging equipment.

Safe Bucket Truck Operations

This training course covers aspects of bucket truck safety such as how to avoid accidents, how to lower the boom in an emergency, and how to carry out a bucket truck rescue. It is assumed that the students are already familiar with the basic parts and operation of a bucket truck. Students should be familiar with all applicable safety procedures before they operate a bucket truck. The instructor should make sure that all students wear hard hats, safety glasses, and gloves. After completing this course, the students should be able to explain how to perform a preuse inspection o f a bucket truck, describe safety considerations associated with using a bucket truck at a job site, and explain how personnel can be protected from bucket truck shock hazards. They should also be able to describe common methods of bucket truck escape, emergency boom lowering, and bucket truck rescue.

Safety in Substations and Switchyards

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic safety principles and practices applicable to substation and switchyard maintenance work. The course describes electrical, chemical, and personal hazards that may be encountered in substations and switchyards. A general procedure for responding to imminent dangers and accidents is also presented. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to identify hazards in substations and switchyards and explain why safety practices are important. They should be able to recognize hazards and unsafe practices on the job, and they should have a general understanding of how to respond to imminent dangers and accidents.

Safety in Transmission and Distribution Maintenance

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic safety considerations involved in performing maintenance work on transmission and distribution systems. Specific electrical shock hazards and how to avoid them are discussed. The course describes hazards that may be encountered in overhead, underground, and substation and switchyard maintenance work. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of the types of hazards that may be encountered in transmission and distribution maintenance work.

Series and Street Lighting

The Series Street Lighting Systems training course is designed to familiarize students with electrical street lighting systems that use series AC circuits. The components and operation of series streetlighting circuits are discussed, as well as how to identify some common street lighting circuit faults. To obtain maximum advantage from this course, the students should have an understanding of basic electrical theory and the components and operation of distribution systems. They should also be familiar with circuit and wiring diagrams. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to describe the design and operation of series street lighting circuits and the components that make up a series street lighting system. The students should also be able to describe basic troubleshooting procedures for determining the cause of a fault in a series street lighting circuit.

System Protection and Monitoring

The purpose of this course is to teach trainees the principles of protection and monitoring in a transmission and distribution system. The course explains the role of protective devices, system grounds, and monitoring and control equipment. Techniques for installing or replacing ground rods, arrestors, and fuse links are presented. The course also describes how monitoring and control equipment is typically used in a transmission and distribution system. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to explain how system grounds, arrestors, and fuse cutouts are used to protect transmission and distribution system components. They should also be able to describe the basic function and features of a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system.

Using Line Test Equipment

The purpose of this course is to introduce types of line test equipment used in the field to detect voltage, amperage, and resistance; to show how this equipment is used; and to show the kinds of readings that can be expected from this equipment. After completing this course, trainees should be able to identify types of line test equipment used in the field. They should have a basic understanding of the use of this equipment; they should know how to determine which instrument to use; and they should be able to demonstrate the use of each meter to take a reading.

OVERHEAD LINE MAINTENANCE: DISTRIBUTION

Climbing Wooden Poles

The purpose of this course is to teach the use of basic climbing equipment, the basic techniques of free and belted climbing, and the care and maintenance of climbing equipment. Trainees are also introduced to some basic climbing situations typically encountered by new climbers on a job. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of the equipment used for climbing wooden poles, how to determine the proper fit of equipment, how equipment is cared for and maintained, and how equipment is tested and inspected. Trainees should also understand the basic techniques of free and belted climbing and how to maneuver around a pole.

Distribution Line Installation and Removal

The purpose of this course is to teach how to install a new line to replace an old line. The situation described is one that often occurs when roads are widened, making it necessary to install a new line on new structures. The course demonstrates how to install the new line, parallel it with the old line, and de-energize and remove the old line. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to plan an installation and removal job and demonstrate how to perform the major steps involved in doing the job. They should be able to pull and sag lines, parallel a new line with an existing line, remove conductors, and remove equipment.

Distribution Line Repair—Gloves

The purpose of this course is to teach the principles involved in working on energized lines using insulated gloves. These principles are illustrated by a demonstration of replacing dead-end crossarms with the lines energized. Method, communication, concentration, and safety are emphasized throughout the course. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to demonstrate how to work safely on energized lines using insulated gloves. They should be able to demonstrate how to prepare for a job that will be done using gloves, perform the work safely, and return the job site to a normal condition. They should also understand the steps required to perform the specific job demonstrated.

Distribution Line Repair—Hot Sticks

The purpose of this course is to teach the principles involved in working on energized lines using hot sticks. The principles are illustrated by a demonstration of replacement of dead-end crossarms with the lines energized. The same job is used as with gloves in order to show more clearly how using hot sticks differs from using gloves. Method, communication, concentration, and safety are emphasized throughout the course. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to demonstrate how to work safely on energized lines using hot sticks. They should be able to demonstrate how to prepare for a job that will be done using hot sticks, perform the work safely, and return the job site to a normal condition. They should also understand the steps required to perform the specific job demonstrated.

Distribution Line Replacement

The purpose of this course is to teach how to replace conductors in an existing line with new conductors. The situation described is one that often occurs when it is necessary to increase the size of the conductors in a line. The course demonstrates how to install the new conductors, parallel them with the existing conductors, and remove the old conductors. The importance of maintaining the proper clearances and the importance of maintaining the integrity of the existing line are explained. Safety is emphasized throughout the course. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to plan a replacement job and demonstrate how to perform the major steps involved in doing the job. They should be able to install temporary crossarms, transfer lines, pull and sag new lines, parallel a new line with an existing line, and remove old conductors.

Distribution Line Safety

The Distribution Line Safety training course is designed primarily to introduce the students to principles and techniques of equipotential grounding. Although the program is intended as an introduction to equipotential grounding, the procedures and concepts presented assume a familiarity with basic electrical theory, distribution systems, grounding theory and application, and basic distribution line work methods and procedures. Students without this prior training may require additional explanation or instruction. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to explain the purpose of grounding an overhead line during maintenance work and describe ways in which an isolated or de-energized line can become energized. The students should also be able to define the term “zone of equipotential” and explain how equipotential grounding operates to safeguard linemen in the event of a ground fault condition. Finally, the students should be able to describe or demonstrate how grounding equipment can be used to set up a zone of equipotential. Specific objectives for each segment of the course are given in the student text.

Overhead Distribution Systems

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic layout of overhead distribution systems, to explain how to identify circuits and equipment in the field, and to introduce delta- and wye-connected distribution systems. The basic theory underlying the operation of delta and wye systems is presented, and the differences between them are discussed. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to describe the basic layout of an overhead distribution system and identify circuits and equipment in the field. They should understand the basic characteristics of delta and wye systems and should be able to identify delta and wye circuits in the field. They should also understand the importance of identifying whether a system is connected delta or wye before any work is performed.

Overhead Troubleshooting 1

Overhead Troubleshooting 1 is designed to introduce students to some basic troubleshooting steps that can be applied to any type of overhead electrical system problem and to demonstrate how those steps can be applied to several different troubleshooting situations. Although Overhead Troubleshooting. Course 1 is an introductory program; it is recommended that students have a general understanding of overhead system components and operation. Students without this prior training may require additional explanation or instruction. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to identify some basic troubleshooting steps that can be applied to any type of overhead system problem; identify other considerations that should be kept in mind during any kind of troubleshooting activity; and describe how some basic troubleshooting steps can be applied to several different troubleshooting situations.

Overhead Troubleshooting 2— Emergency Conditions

Overhead Troubleshooting 2 is designed to familiarize students with some of the basic principles associated with troubleshooting overhead electrical systems during emergency conditions. Particular attention is paid to the differences between troubleshooting during emergency conditions and troubleshooting during normal conditions, and to the manner in which communications are handled. T o gain maximum advantage from this course, the students should have a basic understanding of the components and operation of an overhead electrical system, and they should have completed the Overhead Troubleshooting 1 training course. Students without this prior training may require additional explanation or instruction. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to identify basic differences between troubleshooting under emergency conditions and troubleshooting under normal conditions, and describe basic preparations and safety precautions associated with troubleshooting under emergency conditions. They should also be able to explain why a communications center is needed during emergency conditions and how communications to and from the communications center are handled. T h e students should also be able to describe how repairs to problems encountered during troubleshooting are prioritized during emergency situations.

Pole Top Equipment & Replacement 1

The pole top Equipment and Replacement training course is designed to familiarize students with the various types of pole top equipment and switches used in overhead distribution systems. Pole top equipment operation and function are discussed along with general procedures for equipment replacement and maintenance. To obtain maximum advantage from this course, the students should be familiar with the NUSIC T&D Systems and Theory programs and the T&D Maintenance Basics programs or have equivalent background. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to describe how pole top cutouts, reclosers, sectionalizers, and gang-operated switches are used to provide coordinated protection for a distribution system. They should also be able to identify problems that occur in pole top equipment, and they should be able to describe general procedures for replacing fused cutouts, reclosers, and gang- operated switches.

Pole Top Equipment & Replacement 2

The purpose of this course is to teach how overhead capacitors and voltage regulators work, how to detect problems in their operation, and how to safely replace them if necessary. To accomplish this, the course presents the basic theory and operating characteristics of overhead capacitors and voltage regulators and demonstrates how they can be safely replaced. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to describe the function and operation of overhead capacitors, how to detect operating problems, and how to replace an overhead capacitor safely. They should also be able to describe the function and operation of overhead voltage regulators, how to detect voltage regulator problems, and how to safely replace an overhead voltage regulator.

Pole Top Transformer Replacement

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic procedures used to safely remove and install pole top transformers. Although specific types of transformers are used as examples, emphasis is placed on general procedures that apply to the majority of pole top transformers. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should understand the basic procedures for replacing pole top transformers safely and efficiently. Their understanding should include how to use a boom or blocks and a truck-mounted winch to install or remove a transformer and the basic techniques used to connect and disconnect pole top transformers. They should also be familiar with some methods commonly used to replace a transformer without interrupting customer service, and they should know how to use the appropriate safety equipment for transformer replacement procedures.

Safety in Overhead Line Maintenance

The purpose of this course is to teach basic safety principles and practices applicable to work on overhead lines. The principles stressed are proper attitude, preplanning, care and inspection of equipment, and creation of a safe work area. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to recognize the electrical and structural hazards associated with overhead line maintenance and know what to do to avoid them. They should know how to identify, care for, inspect, and use the protective equipment necessary for working near energized lines and equipment. They should also know the correct procedures for working aloft, and they should understand how to perform a fast and safe pole top rescue.

Service Installation

The purpose of this course is to teach how to make single-phase and three-phase service connections. Various kinds of hardware used to make service connections are shown, and their use is demonstrated. Residential service connections from underground and from overhead are demonstrated. Three-phase connections are also demonstrated, as well as how to install a parallel service and how to replace a three-phase service without interruption of the service. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to demonstrate how a variety of connection hardware is used. They should be able to make residential service connections from overhead or underground. They should also be able to make a three-phase service connection, install a parallel three-phase service, and replace a three-phase service without interruption.

Setting and Replacing Poles

The purpose of this course is to teach how to set a pole and two methods of manual replacement of an existing pole. The most common method of setting poles using power equipment is demonstrated first. Because power equipment may not always be available or may not be able to reach the job site, two manual methods of replacing poles are demonstrated. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to describe and demonstrate how to set a pole using a derrick. They should be able to describe and demonstrate how to set a pole in a hole adjacent to an existing pole by rigging off of the existing pole. They should also be able to describe and demonstrate how to replace a pole with a new pole in the same hole.

Pole Framing and Guying

The purpose of this course is to teach several approaches to framing and guying utility poles. Several types of construction that are in common use are presented. Several approaches to framing poles are demonstrated: single crossarm, multiple crossarm, armless, and vertical construction. Techniques for positioning and installing guy wires are also explained. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to describe several types of construction. They should be able to install crossarms and insulators on utility poles. They should also be able to explain the considerations involved in selecting and positioning guys and anchors and to demonstrate how to install a guy wire.

Troubleshooting Overhead Lines

The purpose of this course is to teach how to go about patrolling overhead lines. The importance of patrolling to reliable operation of the lines is discussed, and examples of structure, hardware, conductor, insulator, and obstruction problems are shown and explained. An example of how to detect problems while patrolling an overhead line is also given. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to explain why patrolling overhead lines is important. They should understand the types of problems to look for when patrolling overhead lines. They should be able to detect structure problems, problems with broken or damaged hardware on a pole or tower, problems with conductors and insulators, and current or developing obstructions of the lines. They should also be able to demonstrate the ability to detect problems when patrolling overhead lines.

Transformer Connections 1

The purpose of this course is to teach the common types of overhead transformers and how they are connected. Both single-phase and three-phase connections are covered, but the emphasis is on three-phase connections. The course presents connection theory and demonstrates how connections are made.
At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to describe and demonstrate how to make single-phase transformer connections. They should be able to describe and demonstrate how to make three-phase connections in the wye-wye and delta-delta configurations. They should also be able to verify that a replacement transformer is the right one.

Transformer Connections 2

The purpose of this training course is to teach how common types of overhead transformers can be connected together. Both single-phase and three-phase transformers are covered, but the emphasis is on three-phase connections of three single-phase transformers. The course presents connection theory using phasor diagrams and demonstrates how each of the connections is made. At the conclusion of this course, the trainee should be able to describe and demonstrate how to make three-phase connections in all of the following configurations: delta-wye, wye-delta, alternative delta-delta, and alternative wye-delta. Trainees should also be able to show these connections using phasor diagrams. They should be able to demonstrate how to connect transformers to form an open bank in the configurations of delta-delta and wye-delta.

Transformer Troubleshooting

The purpose of this course is to teach techniques for troubleshooting single-phase transformers and three-phase transformer banks. The course demonstrates how to identify a faulted transformer. It also demonstrates how to isolate transformers and how to test for proper no-load voltage. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to identify a faulted single-phase transformer, isolate it, and test it for proper no-load voltage. They should also be able to identify a faulted transformer in a three-phase transformer bank, isolate the faulted transformer, and test it for proper no-load voltage.

34.5 KV Rubber Glove Work

The 34.5 KV Rubber Glove Work training course is designed to introduce students to procedures and equipment associated with performing rubber glove work on 34.5 IW lines. To obtain maximum benefit from this course, the students should have a good understanding of overhead distribution systems.  At the conclusion of the course, the students should be able to describe electrical hazards associated with working on 34.5 KV distribution lines, and describe how to select, use, and care for the equipment typically required for working on 34.5 KV lines. The students should also be able to explain how this equipment and some general safety procedures are used to perform 34.5 KV rubber glove work.

Tree Trimming 1

Tree Trimming 1 is designed to familiarize students with the basic tasks, equipment, and safety hazards associated with trimming trees near energized power lines and equipment. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to identify safety hazards associated with tree trimming work and describe ways to avoid them. They should also be able to identify and describe the use of safety equipment, manual tools, and power tools that are commonly used for tree trimming work. Specific objectives for each segment of the course are given in the student text.

Tree Trimming 2

Tree Trimming 2 is designed to familiarize students with procedures and equipment typically associated with emergency line clearance work. Emphasis is placed on the safety aspects of the job. It is assumed that the students have completed Tree Trimming 1 or have equivalent background knowledge. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to describe various aspects of emergency tree trimming work, including how to plan and perform a job safely. The students should also be able to identify some of the tree cuts that are used for clearing trees and tree limbs from power lines. Specific objectives for each segment of the course are given in the student text.

Working on Distribution Poles

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles involved in working safely on distribution. To illustrate these principles, trainees are shown some resources available for planning distribution work. Trainees then are shown an example of how to accomplish the following jobs: replacing secondary conductors, using a temporary crossarm, moving energized conductors, and installing dead-ends. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should have a basic understanding of how to plan a job that requires climbing, how to work and maneuver near energized conductors, and how to install some types of material and equipment. They should also have a basic understanding of how to approach the jobs that have been demonstrated in this course.

OVERHEAD LINE MAINTENANCE: TRANSMISSION

Climbing Steel Poles and Towers

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles of safe climbing on steel poles and towers. Trainees are also introduced to some of the common techniques for getting into position to do a job on a steel pole or tower. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to list and describe common climbing-related hazards encountered by linemen. They should be able to identify basic climbing equipment and demonstrate how it is used when climbing steel poles and towers. They should also be able to demonstrate and explain basic techniques for positioning in order to perform specific tasks.

Rigging for High-Voltage Line Work

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles of rigging for high-voltage work and to demonstrate how these principles apply in three typical rigging jobs. Particular emphasis is placed on basic safety issues and on properly planning a rigging job. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to explain how to approach rigging near energized lines. They should understand how to plan a job and how the amount of strain involved affects the size and type of equipment selected. They should also be able to describe how to rig to remove strain from a transmission insulator.

Temporary Structures

The purpose of this course is to describe why and how temporary structures may be used to support transmission lines. Circumstances that could lead to a need for temporary structures are presented, and positioning, assembly, and guying of a temporary structure are demonstrated. How to transfer lines to a temporary structure is also explained. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should understand why temporary structures are sometimes used. They should understand how to position, assemble, and guy a temporary structure. They should be able to explain how to safely transfer transmission lines to a temporary structure.

Transmission Line Installation

The purpose of this course is to describe and demonstrate an approach to installing a transmission line. This work is not a routine part of a lineman’s job in many locations, but an understanding of the basic approach is useful to individuals who are responsible for maintaining lines. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should understand how to plan and set up an installation job. They should know the purpose of guard structures and how to set them up. They should also know how to pull conductors into place to proper sag and how to clip them permanently to the insulators.

Transmission Line Repair—Bare Hand Method

The purpose of this course is to teach the theory and practice involved in using the bare-hand method to perform live transmission line repair. Safety is emphasized throughout the course. The basic theory of bare-hand work is presented as well as the equipment used to perform this work. Installation of a repair sleeve is used as an example to illustrate how the principles of bare-hand work are applied. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to explain what bare-hand repair work is, why it works, and how it is done. They should be able to explain how to install a repair sleeve using the bare-hand method.

Transmission Line Repair—Hot Sticks

The purpose of this course is to teach the theory and practice involved in safe use of hot sticks to perform live transmission line repair. Basic safety issues and basic techniques for the care, selection, and use of hot sticks are presented. The course builds on a basic understanding of how to work on transmission towers and the use of high-voltage rigging techniques to demonstrate replacement of string insulators using hot sticks. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to describe the safety issues important in performing live transmission line repair using hot sticks. They should be able to care for, select, and use hot sticks. They should also be able to explain how to replace string insulators in all three common positions.

Transmission Line Safety

This course is designed to cover three major areas relating to safety in transmission line work: personal safety, electrical safety, and work site safety. Specific attention is directed to proper clothing and protective equipment; hazards associated with slipping, tripping and falling, and lifting and moving loads; electrical hazards and steps that can be taken to safeguard against them; and how personnel can work safely at the job site, both on the ground and while climbing transmission structures. The procedures and concepts presented assume a familiarity with basic electrical theory and transmission and distribution systems. Students without this prior training may require additional explanation or instruction. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to choose the proper clothing and protective equipment, and take the necessary steps to guard against slipping, tripping and falling hazards, and the hazards associated with lifting and moving loads. The students should also be able to describe possible electrical hazards and steps that can be taken to safeguard against them. I n addition, the students should be able to describe the steps that can be taken to safeguard against hazards at the work site, both on the ground and while climbing transmission structures.

Transmission Structures

The purpose of this course is to teach how transmission structures are built. It is recognized that transmission structure construction is not a routine part of a lineman’s job in most locations; however, a basic understanding of how this work is done is useful for maintaining transmission lines. The course describes how transmission structure foundations are laid and covers three types of construction methods for erecting transmission structures. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to describe how two types of transmission structure foundations are laid. They should be able to explain how transmission structure construction is planned and describe three ways that transmission structures are erected.

Working on De-energized Transmission Lines

The purpose of this course is to teach principles and practices for working safely on de-energized transmission lines. The course explains how a de-energized line could become energized if the proper safety practices are not followed. An approach to de-energizing, isolating, testing, and grounding a transmission line is presented. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to describe the dangers of a de-energized line’s becoming energized. They should be able to describe how to safely de-energize, isolate, test, and ground a transmission line. They should also be able to describe or demonstrate how to use temporary grounds and personal grounds.

UNDERGROUND LINE MAINTENANCE

Cable Fault Locating (Radar) 1

Cable Fault Locating 1 (Radar) is designed to familiarize students with how a radar cable fault locator works, how to interpret the information provided by a radar cable fault locator, and how a radar cable fault locator can be used to test a section of URD cable. To gain maximum advantage from this course, the students should have a basic understanding of URD systems and troubleshooting procedures used for URD cable faults. Students without this prior training may require additional explanation or instruction. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to explain how a radar cable fault locator works and what the information provided by the fault locator means. They should also be able to describe how to use a radar cable fault locator to test a section of URD cable.

Cable Fault Locating (Radar) 2

Cable Fault Locating 2 (Radar) is designed to familiarize students with equipment and basic procedures for prelocating and pinpointing faults in underground cables using radar cable fault locators. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to explain the basic concepts of prelocating a cable fault, and they should be able to describe how to prelocate a cable fault using the arc reflection method. The students should also be able to describe how to pinpoint the location of a cable fault after it has been prelocated.

Cable Fault Location 1

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles of using capacitive discharge equipment and voltage gradient equipment to locate faults in direct-buried cable. Examples are used to illustrate the considerations involved in locating faults. The use of capacitive discharge equipment to locate a fault in primary cable and the use of voltage gradient equipment to locate a fault in secondary cable are demonstrated. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to locate a fault in primary direct-buried cable using capacitive discharge equipment. They should also be able to locate a fault in secondary direct-buried cable using voltage gradient equipment.

Cable Fault Location 2

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles involved in using two types of specialized equipment to locate faults in underground cable. The course explains and demonstrates how tracer current equipment can be used to locate faults in duct-lay cable and how a high-voltage bridge can be used to determine the approximate location of a fault in pipe-type cable. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to locate a phase-to-ground fault in a duct-lay cable with tracer current equipment. They should be able to determine the approximate location of a fault in pipe-type cable with a high-voltage bridge.

Cable Splicing 1

The purpose of this course is to teach the principles of underground cable splicing and to demonstrate how cable splices are made. The course explains how to approach splicing in both primary and secondary cable. Demonstrations of splicing both types of cable are presented. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to explain how cable splices are made. They should know how to make a splice in either primary or secondary cable. They should also understand how heat-shrink and cold-shrink splices are used.

Cable Splicing 2

The purpose of this course is to teach the principles of splicing paper-insulated lead-covered (PILC) cables. The course explains how to prepare PILC cable for several typical splices made on primary PILC cables. Demonstrations of making several typical splices on PILC cables are presented. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to explain how several typical splices on PILC cables are made. They should know how to make a straight splice, a typical transitional splice, and one type of trifurcating transitional splice on a PILC cable.

Cable Terminations

The purpose of this course is to teach the principles of high-voltage cable terminations and to demonstrate how such cable terminations are made. The course explains the problems associated with voltage stress and the function of stress cones. Demonstrations of how to make several different kinds of cable terminations are presented. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to explain what voltage stress is and how terminations are built to avoid voltage stress problems. They should understand how to make a high-voltage termination in a substation. They should also know how to make terminations at pedestals and how to install a pothead.

Pad-Mounted Transformers and Switchgear

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles of operation of pad-mounted transformers and switchgear, the types of equipment that are in common use, and how they are connected. The course also presents the basic principles of pad-mounted transformer and switchgear inspection and troubleshooting and shows an example of how to detect a problem with one leg of a three-phase transformer. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to state how pad-mounted transformers and switchgear are used and to describe how they are connected. They should be able to recognize and identify commonly used types of pad-mounted transformers and switchgear. They should also be able to inspect pad-mounted transformers and switchgear, and they should be able to detect a problem with one leg of a three-phase transformer.

Safety in Underground Line Maintenance

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic safety principles and practices applicable to underground line maintenance work. The principles covered are applicable to work area safety, to the use of test equipment to ensure respiratory and electrical safety, to ensure the structural integrity of underground work sites, to the use of respirators, and to emergency responses. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to identify some of the hazards found in and around underground work areas. They should be able to recognize and explain methods used to provide a safe work environment. They should also be able to describe the use of personal safety equipment and identify the safety considerations involved in a typical vault emergency.

Underground Cable Installation

The purpose of this course is to teach two methods of underground cable installation: direct burying and installation in conduit. The course demonstrates how to install and connect a direct-buried cable. A demonstration of how to install cable in underground conduit is also presented. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to install and connect a direct-buried cable. They should also be able to install PVC conduit underground and pull cable into it.

Underground Conduit

The purpose of this course is to teach how to pull cable in manholes and how oil-filled metal conduit is monitored and maintained. The course describes typical cable-pulling equipment and demonstrates how it is used to pull cable in manholes. Oil-filled metal conduit is described, and the principles of corrosion monitoring are explained. An approach to repair of a leaking oil-filled metal conduit is also presented. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to describe and demonstrate how cable-pulling equipment is used to pull cable in manholes. They should understand the purpose of oil-filled metal conduit, and they should be able to explain how corrosion-monitoring equipment works and how to repair leaking oil-filled metal conduit.

Underground Residential Distribution Systems

The purpose of this course is to teach how URD systems are connected along with the basic components they contain. The course covers the basic principles of installation and routine maintenance. It also demonstrates basic switching operations. At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to identify common types of URD systems. They should be able to list and identify common components of a URD system and describe typical routine maintenance tasks. They should also be able to describe switching in a loop system to isolate components without interrupting customer service.

URD Transformers

The purpose of this course is to teach the basic principles involved in detecting a transformer problem and to illustrate disconnecting, replacing, and reconnecting a faulted subsurface transformer. Basic troubleshooting techniques are presented using an example in which a subsurface residential transformer has caused a power outage. Techniques for energizing and de-energizing are illustrated.
At the conclusion of this course, trainees should be able to explain how to use the process of elimination to determine the cause of a residential power outage. They should be able to apply this process to locate the cause of a residential power outage. They should also know how to use diagrams to locate circuits, transformers, and houses, and know how to plan a logical search for the cause of an outage.

URD Troubleshooting

This course is designed to familiarize students with some basic methods that can be used to troubleshoot transformer faults and cable faults in underground residential distribution (URD) systems. T o gain maximum advantage from this course, the students should have a basic understanding of how URD systems are arranged and how they function. Students without this prior training may require additional explanation or instruction. At the conclusion of this course, the students should be able to describe methods that can be used to troubleshoot transformer faults and cable faults in a URD system.